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MASTER RUNNERS: Getting the most out your training this winter

The profile of injuries shifts as we get older with soft tissue injuries being the most prevalent ie tendons and calfs


So why is this?




We see a 13% reduction in step length by the age of 60


This is due to reduced muscle mass (sarcopenia), reduced neural drive (signal to muscles to contract) and reduced tendon stiffness, as we get older.


As a results force production is impaired.


Where 50% of propulsion comes from below the knee- the planterflexors/ calfs take the biggest hit


We compensate by increasing our stride frequency


Despite these biomechanical differences there is evidence that running economy is maintained in older runners- this is the metabolic or energy cost of running.


So how do we attenuate these changes in the muscles and protect again soft tissue injuries?


Strengthening!


Soft tissues respond favorably to (heavy) load- this stimulates collagen synthesis via a process can mechanotherapy


Running on is own is not enough


When we run our foot is in contact with the ground for only about 0.25/ second, we only get close to our peak muscle contraction for a fraction of this time


Strengthening promotes time under tension (increased peak contraction time)- so we are able to sufficiently stimulate the muscles to get an adaptive response


High load, low reps is optimal ie 6-8 rep max for 3-4 sets. These sessions should be repeated 2-3 times/ week



So what exercises are best?


It is good to do a combination of isolated, single joint exercises (to target key muscles and get an overload response), as well as more functional compound movements


Here are our favorites for runners:


Single leg calf raises - this targets the gastrocnemius


Bent knee heel raises- this targets the soleus muscle, the deeper of the calf muscles- a big muscle that makes up nearly 70% of the calf musculature- essential for propulsion in running


Single leg knee dips off a step- this targets the quadriceps- avoid bending forward

Squats- this is a great triple extension exercise (combing hip, knee and ankle)- it targets multiple muscles including the hamstrings and glutes


Lunges- Again a nice functional movement pattern targeting multiple muscles- it also encourages hip extension and more dynamic movement


You can challenge the planterflexors outside the gym by adding speed and hills to your runs, but do not neglect the above


So where do these strength sessions fit in around running?


Endurance training compromises strength training- this is called neuro- physiological intereference. Strength does not compromise endurance training, but avoid doing immediately pre or post.


It is more important to schedule hard and easy days so that on hard days you can work hard and on easy days you can work easy- this gives tissues time to adapt and recover. This is when the magic happens.

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